Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Richard The Lion Hearted Essay Research Paper Example For Students

Richard The Lion Hearted Essay Research Paper Conceived: eighth September 1157 at Beaumont Palace, Oxford Died: sixth April 1199 at Chalus, Aquitaine Buried: Fontevrault Abbey, Anjou Parents: Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine Siblings: William, Henry, Matilda, Geoffrey, Eleanor, Joan John Crowned: second September 1189 at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex Married: twelfth May 1191 at Limassol, Cyprus Spouse: Berengia little girl of Sancho VI, King of Navarre Offspring: None Richard Plantagenet (otherwise called Richard the lion hearted) was conceived onSeptember eighth in the year 1157 CE. Albeit conceived in Oxfordshire England,Richard was an offspring of Aquitaine a piece of Southern France. His language wasnot English and for an amazing duration he talked little of it. He had four siblings and three sisters, the first kicked the bucket at a youngage. Of the rest of, was named beneficiary to the English seat, Richardwas to succeed his moms Aquitane and Geoffrey was to acquire Brittany. John was the least fortunate to reasonable out getting nothing from his dad. It isthis activity that gave him the name John Lackland. At a youthful age of twelve, Richard swore praise to the King of France forlands of his. At fourteen years old, Richard was named the Duke of Aquitanein the congregation of St. Hillaire at Poitiers (one of the terrains made praise tothe French King.) Henrys children, who had been given grounds yet no genuine powerrevolted against their King father supported by their mom. In reprisal KingHenry had Eleanor imprisoned. She stayed there for a long time. Richards Mother EleanorEleanor was the little girl and beneficiary of William X, duke of Aquitaine andcount of Poitiers, who had probably the biggest space inFrancelarger, truth be told, than those held by the French ruler. Upon Williamsdeath in 1137 she acquired the Duchy of Aquitaine and in July 1137 marriedthe beneficiary to the French seat, who succeeded his dad, Louis VI, thefollowing month. Eleanor became sovereign of France, a title she held for thenext 15 years. Delightful, fanciful, and revered by Louis, Eleanor exertedconsiderable impact over him, frequently driving him into undertaking perilousventures. From 1147 to 1149 Eleanor went with Louis on the Second Crusade to protectthe delicate Latin realm of Jerusalem, established after the First Crusade only50 years prior, from Turkish ambush. Eleanors lead during thisexpedition, particularly at the court of her Uncle Raymond of Poitiers atAntioch, excited Louiss envy and denoted the start of theirestrangement. After their arrival to France and a brief reconciliation,their marriage was abrogated in March 1152. As per medieval customs,Eleanor then recaptured ownership of Aquitaine, and after two months shemarried the grandson of Henry I of England, Henry Plantagenet, and check ofAnjou and duke of Normandy. In 1154 he became, as Henry II, ruler of England,with the outcome that England, Normandy, and the west of France were unitedunder his standard. Eleanor had just two little girls by Louis VII; to her newhusband she bore five children and three little girls. The children were William, whodied at three years old; Henry; Richard, the Lion- Heart; Geoffrey, duke ofBrittany; and John, surnamed Lackland until, having outlasted all hisbrothers, he acquired, in 1199, the crown of England. The girls wereMatilda, who wedded Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria; Eleanor, whomarried Alfonso VIII, ruler of Castile; and Joan, who wedded successivelyWilliam II, lord of Sicily, and Raymond VI, check of Toulouse. Eleanor wouldwell have had the right to be named the grandma of Europe.During her childbearing years, she partook effectively in theadministration of the domain and significantly more effectively in the administration of herown areas. She was instrumental in turning the court of Poitiers, thenfrequented by the most popular troubadours of the time, into a middle ofpoetry and a model of cultured life and habits. She was the incredible benefactor ofthe two predominant graceful developments of the time. The elegant love tradition,conveyed in the sentimental melodies of the troubadours, and the authentic matirede Bretagne , or legends of Britanny, which began in Celtic conventions. The Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancie Essay Rumors ran rapidly all through England over the missing lord. There is alegend that the troubadour Blondel heard his lord singing in a stronghold andresponded with a tune that the them two made certain to know. Regardless of whether trueor not the reality remains that two Abbots were before long dispatched to travel forhim through the system of the congregation. Indeed, even Eleanor, Richards mother wroteto the Pope for help with the issue. Richard was found and soon a ransomwas set for his arrival to England. The aggregate was 150,000 stamps and sum equalto three years of yearly pay and weighing at three tons in silver. Return Of the King Richard came back to England getting a saints welcome. He excused hisbrother John, by saying he was controlled by crafty individuals and pledged topunish them and not his sibling. Shockingly for the King he came back to aland in budgetary difficulties. The expense of the Crusade and his huge payment hadtapped out the accounts of the land. This money related difficulty was to demolish himfor his staying five-year rule. He made another extraordinary seal as a methods toraise reserves and made void all records marked with the old. Demise of A King For such a daring and honorable King Richards passing occurred in a ratherstrange way. In Chalus, Aquitane, a worker furrowing his fields happened upon atreasure. This fortune comprised of some gold sculptures and coins. Richard inturn guaranteed the fortune from the ruler, who cannot. This incited Richardto attack the town. During the attack Richard was riding near the stronghold without theprotection of full covering. He recognized a toxophilite with bow close by on the wallaiming a took shots at him. It is said Richard delayed to cheer the Bowman. He wasstruck in the shoulder with the bolt and rejected treatment for his injury. Contamination set in and Richard the primary, the Lionheart kicked the bucket on April the 6th1199. He was covered in the Fontvraud Abbey in Anjou France. Catalog Richard IBibliography K. Norgate, Richard the Lion Heart (1924, reproduced 1969),F.M. Powicke, The Loss of Normandy, 1189-1204, second ed. (1961),L. Landon, Itinerary of King Richard I (1935), S. Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. 3 (1954), Amy Kelly, Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings (1950),

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Through punishments, society is being molded and shaped into what your parents, teachers, and bosses want

Ordinary we go out and do the things we do. Everybody carries on with an alternate life and sees things in an unexpected way. In any case, the majority of the disciplines are the equivalent. We carry on in specific manners to maintain a strategic distance from outcomes that power figures have put out there. Through these disciplines, society is being formed and molded into what your folks, instructors, and supervisors need. What your folks, instructors, and supervisors need can be actually what the administration needs you to be. The administration controls conduct through the disciplines it upholds. They set the principles on how individuals should act and how they ought to react to specific circumstances. On the off chance that these individuals demonstration in a manner not suitable to social orders gauges, at that point they will be rebuffed. This discipline will attempt to control the practices of these individuals. It will attempt to shape the individual into what society needs. Disciplines are by all account not the only method to control somebody's conduct. Individuals use compensations to keep somebody glad and to control the conduct. More than likely, in the event that you accomplish something and you get remunerated, you will like it and act in a similar issue again later. I consider society to be where disciplines are utilized more than remunerations. They see that rebuffing an individual is simpler than remunerating them. It appears as though those that are rebuffed harshly and brought to prison, come out of prison and find there path back. This is on the grounds that a few people are rebuffed in the incorrect manner and sent to prison. Once out of prison, society sees that they have been rebuffed and put them as outsider. These individuals currently make some harder memories working in the public arena on the grounds that the administration thinks they have changed these person's practices. As a general rule, they come out of prison with no open door accessible. Nobody will employ these individuals since they are currently observed as lawbreakers. They attempt to secure positions however nobody connects with them in light of the discipline they have gotten. Presently these people wind up in an issue. They have to eat and take care of their families yet have no chance to get of doing as such. They need to perpetrate wrongdoings to get need they need since society has put them out. Society and the individuals in it are not great and slip-ups are made. We use discipline to control conduct so we can anticipate what they will do and control people around us. We have to comprehend that discipline can be acceptable whenever utilized effectively. However, in the event that discipline is utilized erroneously, it will hurt society over the long haul and make life a lot harder to live.

Wednesday, August 19, 2020

Defeat your Loneliness on Christmas

Defeat your Loneliness on Christmas Things to Do on Christmas Day Home›Tips for Students›Things to Do on Christmas Day Tips for StudentsDecember is a special month; it brings the feeling of a holiday and everything starts buzzing in Christmas preparations.  From all around, you can hear about sparkling family traditions, different gatherings and the spirit of unity.  So you get a bit of a Grinch mood when anticipating that this Christmas you will spend on your own. There are plenty of reasons that spoil your holiday; the hint is not to fall for them.When you’re alone at Christmas If there is a chance to take control over your depressive circumstances, go for it! Rearrange your Christmas and enjoy your time. It’s much better than hibernating the whole month, trust me. You don’t have to perform feats to make your Christmas bright and enjoyable. Take small steps to create your holiday atmosphere.First of all, put some decorations to give a feeling of Christmas. At least, do something small like a tiny Christma s tree on your desk or a glowing garland above your bed. Even these simple details will involve you in the celebration. Don’t let yourself being excluded from Christmas this year.Get rid of the dreadful feeling when everyone’s celebrating except you. Make a plan, think of the special activities, maybe, find some alternatives to Christmas clichés. It must be something exciting for you. Bonus: you don’t have to avoid “What are you doing this Christmas?” question anymore.Whatever homebody you are, don’t spend all day alone. Find a company to celebrate with. Call your friends, visit your family, host a dinner, become a Christmas volunteer. People around will certainly make your day by simply saying “Merry Christmas!”Take your time to gather thoughts. If you really have a sad reason not to celebrate this year, don’t pretend to be happy. Think of your life, of the past year, of the meaning of Christmas. This holiday bears hope. This is the day when Jesus was born. He ca me to this world to become our redeemer, and He certainly knows how to overcome difficulties.This season I wish you to be happy. You have a chance to start over!

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Real Estate Prices In Inner And Outer London - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4216 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Abstract Understanding and predicting upcoming real estate house prices is a vital activity that forms the center for all strategic, tactical and operational planning decisions in management of real estate businesses. The political, environmental, sociological, technological, legal and economic factors in the market affect the consequent house prices; but the affect is greater in Inner London as compared to Outer London. In times of economic boom and political stability; Inner London is an attractive residence for professional and skilled individuals and families. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Real Estate Prices In Inner And Outer London" essay for you Create order Living in Inner London offers a close proximity to the large workplace; and a dwelling for like-minded professionals that work in similar markets, i.e. financial services. This study examines how best to model and forecast house prices through times series analysis to identify the accuracy of the forecasts and the smoothness of prices. Chapter 1: Introduction The macroeconomic or financial economics perspective emphasize housing as investment in an augmenting life-cycle model of consumerism, with minimal consideration to spatial issues; implying that houses and related facilities are crude human necessities that are utilized cost-effectively. The urban economics perspective, places spatial issues at the centre, denoting human desire affect selection of houses and associated amenities. The current explanations given by mortgage banks for large house price increases is that the class of consumers who are not constrained in their access to credit are speculating and trading in this profitable market. Illustration of housing as an asset, consumers only pay a high price if it implies that at the time of sale in the future a consumer will be prepared to pay a high price; this is the reason that price of housing should reflect the future. A fall in nominal interest rates leads to consumers capitalizing in the house market thereby causing large debts and high house prices. 1.1 Hidden Layers in House Sales Market The presence of hidden layers in the housing framework of prices and consumption shields analysts against the casual explanation that house prices adjust in alignment to fundamental reasoning; the actual archetype is then based on bubble reasoning. The economic, socio-political situation of the free market guides investors and sequentially the real prices in the real estate market. An analysis of market efficiency leads to investors or consumer to speculate in housing; the most important determinants of long-run national and sub-national house prices are in consequence to; real interest rates, housing stock, demographic changes, credit availability, and tax structure. 1.2 Benefit of forecasting future house sales Forecasting future house sales is one of the most important activities that form the basis for all strategic and planning decisions in effective operations of real estate businesses and the real estate market economies. The best model to forecast house sales is through a time series that contain both trend and seasonal variations. Sequentially, accurate forecasts of consumer or investor house sales can help improve real estate market operation especially for larger agencies that have a significant market share. For profitable house sale operations, accurate demand forecasting is crucial in organizing and planning for consumers or investors; construction/renovation aspects, marketing and administration, as well as after-sales services. A poor forecast would result in either too much or too little customers, directly affecting the profitability of the brand and the competitive position of the organization. 1.3 Demographic Factors of UK House Market Trends in demographic factors maintain demand, thus aiding in the explanation into the reasons housing has a good historical rate of return. The recent shift upwards of price trend into a new permanently higher level implies a shifting upwards in the trend of the original demographic factors. Whilst the trends keep adapting to economic scenarios, the position of the trends has not shifted radically. Realistically the demographic factors complimentary to house prices in the 1980s largely relaxed in the early 1990s. Recent studies by the IMF have suggested that the house-holds variable affects the long-term prices, and is not a significant issue in the short-term determination of prices. 1.5 The Nominal Interest Rate UK mortgage banks are placing significant spotlight on nominal interest rate, however, no valid economy statistics report has determined that the nominal interest rate plays any role in the long-run determination of house prices. Essentially it is the real costs of housing that matter, though in the short-run real house prices do respond to changes in nominal interest rate. Consumers purchase pricey houses by engaging in debts; the same initial monthly repayment is due; thus when nominal interest rates are 1% (all real rates remain the same) house prices augment, the percentage of lifetime income spent on housing increases and amount spent on other goods and services decreases, implying that just one or two per cent more interest can make a major variance to all consumption potentials. 1.6 Real Interest Rates As market study and theory implies that at a low real interest rate, more customers borrow more money and house prices rise. Risk-averse consumers (credit unconstrained) base decision of amount of money to borrow on: 1) Real 2) After Tax 3) Expected and 4) Risk-Adjusted Rate of Interest. 1.7 Credit Constraints of House Buyers The presence of credit constraints in the analysis designates inconsistencies that suggest (even without examining for market efficiency) that the clarification is attained from supplementary factors or hidden layers. Simplistic explanations of house prices do emphasize that it is the intensification of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"lifetime utilityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ that drive analysis and from this correct house prices are predictable. 1.8 GDP Growth and Expectations At times that consumers are more optimistic about their economic prospects, increase in consumption of other goods and services in alignment with an increase in house prices occurs. House prices and the growth of debt-driven consumption are a result of unrealistic inference to recent unemployment and income patterns. The origins of growth matter; recent UK economic performance is based on consumption that is relatively based on high house prices; each time the housing market collapses, unemployment rises. Market study reveals that a large percentage of decrease in unemployment is from extension in government employment and from the housing market. Also, Long-term increases in the productivity of UK markets pulses into house prices. Chapter 2: Literature Review Precise forecasts of consumer real estate prices aide in improving real estate business operation, especially for agencies that have a significant market share. For cost-effective real estate operations, perfect price forecasting is decisive in organizing and planning purchasing, production, transportation, and labor force, as well as after-sales services. A pitiable forecast results in either too much or too little preparation, directly upsetting the prosperity of the agency chain and the competitive situation of the business. 2.4 Real Estate Investments Real estate investments are categorized into: 1) private equity, 2) public equity, 3) private debt and 4) public debt. A choice of which one to invest in depends on the type of exposure required for a portfolio; to invest in income-producing properties or non-income-producing properties. Any leased property is income producing, and vacant properties are non-income producing. It is possible to earn a capital return on a non-income producing property, just as on an investment in a home. The foremost types of investment properties are offices, retails, industrials and multi-family residential properties. Real estate can produce income (like a bond) and appreciate (like equity). Real estate is tangible, thus requires constant management. There is an increased ability to influence the performance of a single investment as compared to other asset classes. Some of the benefits of adding real estate to a portfolio include: diversification, yield enhancement, risk reduction and inflation-hedging capabilities. However, real estate also has high transaction costs, can be difficult to acquire and it is challenging to measure its relative performance. Buying real estate requires considerable positive intuition to ensure that the investment is beneficial. To determine the value of a property (other than actually selling it) is to have it appraised by an accredited appraiser. 2.5 Private or Public Markets In the planning of real estate investments, a first tasks is to decide what kind of exposure to the real estate market is appropriate for the situation. Different exposures produce varying levels of risk and return. The choice also influences the means by which real estate is acquired. The first type of market is the private market. In the private market; involves purchasing a direct interest in one or more real estate properties; own and operate the piece of real estate through a property manager or by-self, and receive the rent payments and value changes from that investment. Participation in this market is also possible by purchasing properties with any number of partners, known as a pool or syndicate. Alternatively, participating in the public market is purchasing a share or unit in a publicly traded real estate company. Purchase of a real estate security institutes investing in a company that owns real estate and manages it on behalf of the shareholders/unit-holders of the company. As a result, overall exposure to the real estate market is more indirect. A real estate security usually pays a dividend or distribution in order to send the rent payments that it receives from tenants to its shareholders/unit-holders. Any price appreciation or depreciation in the assets owned by the company is reflected in its share or unit price. 2.6 Equity and Debt Investments In addition to choosing the market, another decision is whether to invest in debt or equity. An investment in debt; lending funds to an owner or purchaser of real estate; receive periodic interest payments from the owner and a security charge against the property in the form of a mortgage. At the end of the mortgage term, the bank (conventionally) obtains back the balance of the mortgage principal. This type of real estate investing is quite like that of bonds. An equity investment represents a residual interest in the property. An equity investor is effectively the owner of the property; situated to gain reasonably if the property value increases or if rent for the building increases. However, in the event of tribulation (i.e. all tenants vacate and it is not possible to make the mortgage payment) then the mortgagee (has a priority interest in the property), may foreclose and the investor must forfeit the equity position to satisfy security. In that sense, the risks of an equity position in real estate is much like that of owning stock. The choice of whether to invest in equity or debt depends upon the investorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s risk tolerance and return expectations. 2.7 Types of Real Estate Real estate investments have one or more tangible real estate properties underlying each investment; in an investment it is important to consider the characteristics of the principal real estate because the performance of those properties will impact the performance of the investment. One of the most important criteria (aside from location) is the type of property. The primary properties are; residential homes, shopping malls, warehouses, office towers or a combination of any of these. Each type of real estate has a different set of drivers influencing its performance. There are four types of income-producing real estate: 1) offices, 2) retail, 3) industrial and 4) leased residential. There are many other less common types as well; hotels, mini-storage, parking lots and seniors care housing. Non-income-producing investments, such as houses, vacation properties or vacant commercial buildings, are as beneficial as income-producing investments. If investing in equity in a non-income producing property, there is no income from rent, so all of the return is through capital appreciation. If investing in debt secured by non-income-producing real estate; the borrowers personal income must be sufficient to cover the mortgage payments, because there is no tenant income to secure the payments. Office Property Offices are the desired investment for frequent real estate owners, on average, the largest and highest profile property type due to typical location in town centers and expansive business office parks. The demand for office space is attached to companies requirement for office workers, and the standard space per office worker. The typical office worker is involved in things like finance, accounting, insurance, real estate, services, management and administration. As these white-collar jobs grow, there is greater demand for office spaces. Returns from office properties can be highly variable because the market tends to be sensitive to economic performance. One obstacle is that office buildings have high operating costs, so if a tenant is lost, it can have a substantial impact on the returns for the property. Nonetheless, in times of prosperity, offices tend to perform exceptionally sound, because demand for space causes rental rates to increase and an extended time period is required to build an office tower to relieve the pressure on the market and rents. Retail Property There is a ample variety of retail properties, ranging from large enclosed shopping malls to single tenant buildings in pedestrian zones. At the present time, the Supremacy Center format is in favor, with retailers occupying larger premises than in the enclosed mall format, and having greater visibility and access from adjacent roadways. Recurrent retail properties have an anchor, which is a large, well-known retailer that acts as a draw to the center. If a retail property has a food store as an anchor, it is said to be food-anchored or grocery-anchored; such anchors would typically enhance the fundamentals of a property and make it more desirable for investment. Often, a retail center has one or more ancillary multi-bay buildings containing smaller tenants. One of these small units is termed a commercial retail unit (CRU). The demand for retail space has many drivers. Among them are: location, visibility, population density, population growth and relative income levels. From an economic perspective, retails tend to perform best in growing economies and when retail sales growth is high. Returns from Retails tend to be more stable than Offices, in part because retail leases are generally longer and retailers are less inclined to relocate as compared to office tenants. Industrial Property Industrials are often considered the simpler of the average real estate investor; require smaller average investments, are less management intensive and have lower operating costs. There are varying types of industrials depending on the use of the building (i.e. warehousing, manufacturing, research and development, or distribution). Important factors to consider in an industrial property are functionality (i.e. ceiling height), location relative to major transport routes (including rail or sea), building configuration, loading and the degree of specialization in the space (such as whether it has cranes or freezers). For some uses, the presence of outdoor or covered yard space is important. Multi-Family Residential Property Multi-Family residential property delivers stable returns, regardless of the economic cycle, people always need a place to live. The result is that in normal markets, residential occupancy tends to stay reasonably high. Another factor contributing to the stability of residential property is that the loss of a single tenant has a minimal impact on the substructure. Commercial property types portray tenant leases either net or partially net, meaning that most operating expenses can be passed along to tenants. However, residential properties normally do not have this feature, meaning that the risk of increases in building operating costs is borne by the property owner for the duration of the lease. A positive aspect of residential properties is that; government-insured financing may be available. At the cost of a small premium, insured financing lowers the interest rate on mortgages, enhancing potential returns from the investment. 2.8 Characteristics of Real Estate Investments One of the beneficial features of real estate is that it produces relatively consistent total returns that are a hybrid of income and capital growth. In that sense, real estate has a coupon-paying bond-like component in that it pays a regular, steady income stream, and it has a stock-like component in that its value has a propensity to fluctuate. And, like all securities that the investor has a long position in, prefers the value to go increase. The income return from real estate is directly linked to the rent payments received from tenants, minus the costs of operating the property and outgoing mortgage/financing payments. If too many tenants are lost, the owner does not have sufficient rents paid by the other tenants to cover the building operating costs. The ability to keep the building full depends on the strength of the leasing market; the supply and demand for space similar to the ownerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s space to lease. In weaker markets with oversupply of vacancies or poor demand, the investor has to charge less rent to maintain the building full than in a strong leasing market. Evidently, if the rents are lower, income returns are lower. Capital appreciation of a property is determined by having the property appraised. An appraiser uses actual sale transactions that have occurred and other pieces of market data to estimate what the property would be worth if it were to be sold. If the appraiser declares that the property would sell for more than purchased for, then the owner has achieved a positive capital return. Because the appraiser uses past transactions in judging values, capital returns are directly linked to the performance of the investment sales market. The investment sales market is affected largely by the supply and demand of investment product. The majority of the volatility in real estate returns comes from the capital appreciation component of returns. Income returns tend to be fairly stable, and capital returns fluctuate more. The volatility of total returns distinguishes someplace in between. 2.9 Other Characteristics of Real Estate Investments Other characteristics that make real estate unique as compared to other investment alternatives are as follows: No fixed maturity Unlike a bond which has a fixed maturity date, an equity real estate investment does not normally mature. In Europe, it is not uncommon for investors to hold property for over 100 years. This attribute of real estate allows an owner to buy a property, execute a business plan, then dispose of the property whenever appropriate. An exception to this characteristic is an investment in fixed-term debt; by definition a mortgage would have a fixed maturity. Tangible Real estate is real; it is possible to visit the investment, speak with tenants, and obtain speculation. As a result, the investor holds a certain degree of physical control over the investment, dissimilar to a stock or bond. Requires Management Real estate is tangible and requires to be managed; tenant complaints are addressed, landscaping is handled, and renovation is required after passing of several or more years. Inefficient Markets An inefficient market indentifies that information asymmetry exists among participants in the market, allowing greater profits to be made by those with special information, expertise or resources. In contrast, public stock markets are much more efficient; information is efficiently circulated amongst market participants, and those with material non-public information are not permitted to trade upon the information. In the real estate markets, information is vital, and facilitates an investor to identify profit opportunities that otherwise would not be visible. High Transaction Costs Private market real estate has high purchase costs and sale costs. On purchases, there are real estate agent-related commissions, lawyers fees, engineers fees and many other costs that can raise the effective purchase price sound beyond the price the seller will essentially collect. On sales, a substantial brokerage fee is usually required for the property to be properly exposed to the market. Because of the high costs of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“tradingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? real estate, longer holding periods are common and speculative trading is rarer than for stocks. Lower Liquidity With the exception of real estate securities, no public exchange exists for the trading of real estate. This makes real estate more difficult to sell because deals must be privately brokered. There can be a substantial lag between the time the owner decides to sell a property and when it actually is sold. Underlying Tenant Quality When assessing an income-producing property, an important consideration is the quality of the underlying tenancy. This is important because when investing in the property, there are two acquisitions: the physical real estate and the income flow from the tenants. If the tenants are likely to default on the monthly obligation, the risk of the investment is greater. Variability among Regions Location is one of the important aspects of real estate investments; a piece of real estate can perform very differently amongst, regions, cities, towns. These regional differences need to be considered when making an investment, because the investors selection of which market to invest in has as large an impact on resultant returns. Chapter 3: Methodology Chapter 4: Results 4.1 Time Series Analysis on Outer London House Prices Year Price in GBP Moving Average Centered Average Seasonal Variation Seasonal Variation Multiplicative Model Q1 1996  £59,562.61 Q2 1996  £57,936.38 60,272.93 Q3 1996  £61,673.3 60,781.26 60,527.1 +1146.21 101.8937 Q4 1996  £61,919.44 62,772.85 61,777.05 +142.386 100.2305 Q1 1997  £61,595.91 64,795.35 63,784.1 -2188.191 96.56938 Q2 1997  £65,902.75 66,635.37 65,715.36 +187.39 100.2852 Q3 1997  £69,763.31 69,295.36 67,965.36 +1797.95 102.6454 Q4 1997  £69,279.5 72,263.94 70,779.65 -1500.149 97.88054 Q1 1998  £72,235.88 74,293.44 73,278.69 -1042.808 98.57693 Q2 1998  £77,777.06 76,726.72 75,510.08 +2266.98 103.0022 Q3 1998  £77,881.31 78,337.86 77,532.29 +349.02 100.4502 Q4 1998  £79,012.63 80,102.67 79,220.27 -207.6362 99.7379 Q1 1999  £78,680.44 83,818.49 81,960.58 -3280.139 95.99791 Q2 1999  £84,836.31 87,573.55 85,696.02 -859.7063 98.9968 Q3 1999  £92,744.56 92,198.75 89,886.15 +2858.41 103.18 Q4 1999  £94,032.88 97,293.15 94,745.95 -713.0687 99.24739 Q1 2000  £97,181.25 102,118.4 99,705.75 -2524.503 97.46805 Q2 2000  £105,213.9 105,675.6 103,897 +1316.93 101.2675 Q3 2000  £112,045.4 109,839.4 107,757.5 +4287.92 103.9792 Q4 2000  £108,261.8 113,161.1 111,500.3 -3238.45 97.09557 Q1 2001  £113,836.4 117,186.4 115,173.8 -1337.363 98.83883 Q2 2001  £118,500.9 123,428.2 120,307.3 -1806.388 98.49852 Q3 2001  £128,146.5 129,337.5 126,382.9 +1763.65 101.3955 Q4 2001  £133,228.9 136,672.2 133,004.8 +224.063 100.1685 Q1 2002  £137,473.8 145,696.3 141,184.2 -3710.4 97.37194 Q2 2002  £147,839.4 154,509.1 150,102.7 -2263.275 98.49218 Q3 2002  £164,242.9 163,239.4 158,874.3 +5368.64 103.3792 Q4 2002  £168,480.3 170,033.3 166,636.4 +1843.92 101.1066 Q1 2003  £172,395.1 174,140.6 172,087 +308.138 100.1791 Q2 2003  £175,015 178,801.1 176,470.9 -1455.85 99.17502 Q3 2003  £180,672 182,642.6 180,721.8 -49.825 99.97243 Q4 2003  £187,122.3 187,052.4 184,847.5 +2274.84 101.2307 Q1 2004  £187,760.9 192,088.1 189,570.3 -1809.35 99.04555 Q2 2004  £192,654.3 195,588.1 193,838.1 -1183.788 99.38929 Q3 2004  £200,815 198,330.8 196,959.4 +3855.56 101.9575 Q4 2004  £201,122 201,343.5 199,837.2 +1284.84 100.6429 Q1 2005  £198,732 203,390.8 202,367.1 -3635.138 98.20369 Q2 2005  £204,705 204,844.2 204,117.5 +587.5 100.2878 Q3 2005  £209,004.1 207,249.2 206,046.7 +2957.38 101.4353 Q4 2005  £206,935.8 209,719.3 208,484.3 -1548.45 99.25728 Q1 2006  £208,352 213,557.2 211,638.3 -3286.25 98.44723 Q2 2006  £214,585.2 218,996.8 216,277 -1691.825 99.21775 Q3 2006  £224,355.9 225,475.7 222,236.2 +2119.66 100.9538 Q4 2006  £228,694.2 232,444.5 228,960.1 -265.8625 99.88388 Q1 2007  £234,267.3 240,032.5 236,238.5 -1971.2 99.16559 Q2 2007  £242,460.5 246,276.9 243,154.7 -694.2125 99.7145 Q3 2007  £254,708.1 250,051.8 248,164.4 +6543.75 102.6369 Q4 2007  £253,671.7 251,542 250,796.9 +2874.83 101.1463 Q1 2008  £249,366.9 246,086.1 248,814 +552.887 100.2222 Q2 2008  £248,421.1 236,546.4 241,316.2 -7104.88 102.9442 Q3 2008  £232,884.6 226,903.8 231,725.1 +1159.5 100.5004 Q4 2008  £215,512.9 218,310.7 222,607.2 -7094.337 96.81307 Q1 2009  £210,796.7 216,358.6 217,334.6 -6537.9 96.99178 Q2 2009  £214,048.4 N/A N/A N/A N/A Q3 2009  £225,076.2 N/A N/A N/A N/A Q4 2009 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Q1 2010 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Average 2,177.91 99.9445% 4.2 Time Series Analysis on Inner London House Prices Year Price in GBP Moving Average Centered Average Seasonal Variation Seasonal Variation Multiplicative Model Q1 1996  £148,896.8 Q2 1996  £142,925.9 147,341.9 Q3 1996  £149,826.8 147,512.5 147,427.2 2,399.612 101.6277 Q4 1996  £147,718.2 154,229.6 150,871 -3,152.8 97.91027 Q1 1997  £149,578.9 163,204.5 158,717 -9,138.13 94.2425 Q2 1997  £169,794.3 171,798.4 167,501.5 2,292.85 101.3689 Q3 1997  £185,726.6 182,167.5 176,982.9 8,743.675 104.9404 Q4 1997  £182,093.8 189,947.1 186,057.3 -3,963.48 97.86976 Q1 1998  £191,055.1 194,649.2 192,298.1 -1,243.02 99.35359 Q2 1998  £200,912.9 195,698.1 195,173.6 5,739.3 102.9406 Q3 1998  £204,534.8 199,057.7 197,377.9 7,156.925 103.626 Q4 1998  £186,289.4 203,921.1 201,489.4 -15,200 92.45617 Q1 1999  £204,493.7 214,261.3 209,091.2 -4,597.52 97.80119 Q2 1999  £220,366.6 231,982.3 223,121.8 -2,755.21 98.76515 Q3 1999  £245,895.6 248,538.2 240,260.3 5,635.337 102.3455 Q4 1999  £257,173.3 263,644.1 256,091.1 1,082.162 100.4226 Q1 2000  £270,717.4 273,068.9 268,356.5 2,360.925 100.8798 Q2 2000  £280,789.9 282,179.8 277,624.4 3,165.55 101.1402 Q3 2000  £283,595 288,329.1 285,254.5 -1,659.46 99.41825 Q4 2000  £293,616.9 292,479.6 290,404.3 3,212.563 101.1062 Q1 2001  £295,314.7 301,948 297,213.8 -1,899.08 99.36104 Q2 2001  £297,391.6 302,959.7 302,453.9 -5,062.26 98.32627 Q3 2001  £321,468.8 307,248.3 305,104 16,364.8 105.3637 Q4 2001  £297,663.8 321,073.8 314,161 -16,497.2 94.7488 Q1 2002  £312,468.9 328,782.1 324,927.9 -12,459 96.1656 Q2 2002  £352,693.6 341,841 335,311.6 17,382.04 105.1838 Q3 2002  £352,302.1 346,899.1 344,370.1 7,932.025 102.3033 Q4 2002  £349,899.5 346,678.6 346,788.9 3,110.65 100.897 Q1 2003  £332,701.3 347,625.3 347,152 -14,450.7 95.83737 Q2 2003  £351,811.4 350,678.9 349,152.1 2,659.3 100.7616 Q3 2003  £356,089.1 358,687.6 354,683.2 1,405.862 100.3964 Q4 2003  £362,113.7 369,487.9 364,087.8 -1,974.05 99.45781 Q1 2004  £364,736.2 381,333.6 375,410.8 -10,674.6 97.15656 Q2 2004  £395,012.6 381,712.7 381,523.2 13,489.44 103.5357 Q3 2004  £403,472 390,406.4 386,059.6 17,412.45 104.5103 Q4 2004  £363,630 395,557 392,981.7 -29,351.7 92.53103 Q1 2005  £399,511 403,120 399,338.5 172.525 100.0432 Q2 2005  £415,615 413,411.6 408,265.8 7,349.25 101.8001 Q3 2005  £433,723.8 421,405.6 417,408.6 16,315.25 103.9087 Q4 2005  £404,796.4 431,011.5 426,208.5 -21,412.1 94.97614 Q1 2006  £431,487 441,305.4 436,158.4 -4,671.41 98.92896 Q2 2006  £454,038.7 450,973.4 446,139.4 7,899.35 101.7706 Q3 2006  £474,899.3 466,815.3 458,894.3 16,004.98 103.4877 Q4 2006  £443,468.4 485,594.8 476,205.1 -32,736.7 93.12551 Q1 2007  £494,854.8 510,784.7 498,189.8 -3,334.95 99.33059 Q2 2007  £529,156.8 533,983 522,383.8 6,772.975 101.2966 Q3 2007  £575,658.7 556,445.9 545,214.4 30,444.27 105.5839 Q4 2007  £536,261.6 566,853.2 561,649.5 -25,387.9 95.47975 Q1 2008  £584,706.4 568,963.1 567,908.2 16,798.24 102.9579 Q2 2008  £570,786.1 558,468.3 563,715.7 7,070.388 101.2542 Q3 2008  £584,098.4 553,527 555,997.6 28,100.76 105.0541 Q4 2008  £494,282.3 531,454.4 542,490.7 -48,208.4 91.11351 Q1 2009  £564,941.1 528,003.7 529,729.1 35,212.05 106.6472 Q2 2009  £482,495.8 N/A N/A, N/A N/A Q3 2009  £570,295.6 N/A N/A N/A N/A Q4 2009 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Q1 2010 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Average 11,049.32 100.0296% 4.3 Time Series Analysis on Number of House Sales Transactions in the UK Year Number of Transactions Moving Average Centered Average Seasonal Variation Seasonal Variation Multiplicative Model Q1 1990 344 Q2 1990 360 349.5 Q3 1990 349 342 345.75 3.25 100.94 Q4 1990 345 333 337.5 7.5 102.2222 Q1 1991 314 334 333.5 -19.5 94.15292 Q2 1991 324 326.5 330.25 -6.25 98.10749 Q3 1991 353 307 316.75 36.25 111.4444 Q4 1991 315 292.25 299.625 15.375 105.1314 Q1 1992 236 295.75 294 -58 80.27211 Q2 1992 265 284 289.875 -24.875 91.41871 Q3 1992 367 284.75 284.375 82.625 129.0549 Q4 1992 268 288.25 286.5 -18.5 93.54276 Q1 1993 239 283.25 285.75 -46.75 83.63955 Q2 1993 279 299 291.125 -12.125 95.83512 Q3 1993 347 314 306.5 40.5 113.2137 Q4 1993 331 322.25 318.125 12.875 104.0472 Q1 1994 299 321.75 322 -23 92.85714 Q2 1994 312 318.75 320.25 -8.25 97.42389 Q3 1994 345 315 316.875 28.125 108.8757 Q4 1994 319 307 311 8 102.5723 Q1 1995 284 295.25 301.125 -17.125 94.31299 Q2 1995 280 283.5 289.375 -9.375 96.76026 Q3 1995 298 277.75 280.625 17.375 106.1915 Q4 1995 272 278.75 278.25 -6.25 97.75382 Q1 1996 261 288.75 283.75 -22.75 91.98238 Q2 1996 284 310.75 299.75 -15.75 94.74562 Q3 1996 338 326.5 318.625 19.375 106.0808 Q4 1996 360 343.25 334.875 25.125 107.5028 Q1 1997 324 355.5 349.375 -25.375 92.73703 Q2 1997 351 359.75 357.625 -6.625 98.1475 Q3 1997 387 358 358.875 28.125 107.837 Q4 1997 377 349.5 353.75 23.25 106.5724 Q1 1998 317 347 348.25 -31.25 91.02656 Q2 1998 317 336.5 341.75 -24.75 92.75786 Q3 1998 377 336.25 336.375 40.625 112.0773 Q4 1998 335 342.5 339.375 -4.375 98.71087 Q1 1999 316 351.75 347.125 -31.125 91.03349 Q2 1999 342 367.25 359.5 -17.5 95.13213 Q3 1999 414 380 373.625 40.375 110.8063 Q4 1999 397 381.5 380.75 16.25 104.2679 Q1 2000 367 372.75 377.125 -10.125 97.31521 Q2 2000 348 358.25 365.5 -17.5 95.21204 Q3 2000 379 348.25 353.25 25.75 107.2895 Q4 2000 339 348 348.125 -9.125 97.37882 Q1 2001 327 352.25 350.125 -23.125 93.39522 Q2 2001 347 364.25 358.25 -11.25 96.85973 Q3 2001 396 368 366.125 29.875 108.1598 Q4 2001 387 380 374 13 103.4759 Q1 2002 342 395.25 387.625 -45.625 88.2296 Q2 2002 395 396.5 395.875 -0.875 99.77897 Q3 2002 457 396 396.25 60.75 115.3312 Q4 2002 392 373.75 384.875 7.125 101.8513 Q1 2003 340 349 361.375 -21.375 94.08509 Q2 2003 306 336 342.5 -36.5 89.34307 Q3 2003 358 362.75 349.375 8.625 102.4687 Q4 2003 340 399.25 381 -41 89.23885 Q1 2004 447 433.25 416.25 30.75 107.3874 Q2 2004 452 447.75 440.5 11.5 99.99119 Q3 2004 494 411 429.375 64.625 115.0509 Q4 2004 398 385.5 398.25 -0.25 99.93723 Q1 2005 300 373.25 379.375 -79.375 79.07743 Q2 2005 350 380.75 377 -27 99.85423 Q3 2005 445 403.5 392.125 52.875 113.4842 Q4 2005 428 422.5 413 15 103.632 Q1 2006 391 432.75 427.625 -36.625 91.43525 Q2 2006 426 444.25 438.5 -12.5 99.96777 Q3 2006 486 453 448.625 37.375 108.331 Q4 2006 474 458.25 455.625 18.375 104.0329 Q1 2007 426 459.25 458.75 -32.75 92.86104 Q2 2007 447 448.5 453.875 -6.875 100.0919 Q3 2007 490 N/A N/A N/A N/A Q4 2007 431 N/A N/A N/A N/A Average 24.44118 99.9445% 4.3 Regression Number of Transactions in the UK and Inner London House Prices Year Ended Number of Transactions UK (X) Median Inner London House Prices (Y) YX X ² Y ² Q1 1996 261  £148,896.8 38862064.8 68121 22170257050 Q2 1996 284  £142,925.9 40590955.6 80656 20427812891 Q3 1996 338  £149,826.8 50641458.4 114244 22448069998 Q4 1996 360  £147,718.2 53178552 129600 21820666611 Q1 1997 324  £149,578.9 48463563.6 104976 22373847325 Q2 1997 351  £169,794.3 59597799.3 123201 28830104312 Q3 1997 387  £185,726.6 71876194.2 149769 34494369948 Q4 1997 377  £182,093.8 68649362.6 142129 33158151998 Q1 1998 317  £191,055.1 60564466.7 100489 36502051236 Q2 1998 317  £200,912.9 63689389.3 100489 40365993386 Q3 1998 377  £204,534.8 77109619.6 142129 41834484411 Q4 1998 335  £186,289.4 62406949 112225 34703740552 Q1 1999 316  £204,493.7 64620009.2 99856 41817673340 Q2 1999 342  £220,366.6 75365377.2 116964 48561438396 Q3 1999 414  £245,895.6 101800778.4 171396 60464646099 Q4 1999 397  £257,173.3 102097800.1 157609 66138106233 Q1 2000 367  £270,717.4 99353285.8 134689 73287910663 Q2 2000 348  £280,789.9 97714885.2 121104 78842967942 Q3 2000 379  £283,595 107482505 143641 80426124025 Q4 2000 339  £293,616.9 99536129.1 114921 86210883966 Q1 2001 327  £295,314.7 96567906.9 106929 87210772036 Q2 2001 347  £297,391.6 103194885.2 120409 88441763751 Q3 2001 396  £321,468.8 127301644.8 156816 1.03342E+11 Q4 2001 387  £297,663.8 115195890.6 149769 88603737830 Q1 2002 342  £312,468.9 106864363.8 116964 97636813467 Q2 2002 395  £352,693.6 139313972 156025 1.24393E+11 Q3 2002 457  £352,302.1 161002059.7 208849 1.24117E+11 Q4 2002 392  £349,899.5 137160604 153664 1.2243E+11 Q1 2003 340  £332,701.3 113118442 115600 1.1069E+11 Q2 2003 306  £351,811.4 107654288.4 93636 1.23771E+11 Q3 2003 358  £356,089.1 127479897.8 128164 1.26799E+11 Q4 2003 340  £362,113.7 123118658 115600 1.31126E+11 Q1 2004 447  £364,736.2 163037081.4 199809 1.33032E+11 Q2 2004 452  £395,012.6 178545695.2 204304 1.56035E+11 Q3 2004 494  £403,472 199315168 244036 1.6279E+11 Q4 2004 398  £363,630 144724740 158404 1.32227E+11 Q1 2005 300  £399,511 119853300 90000 1.59609E+11 Q2 2005 350  £415,615 145465250 122500 1.72736E+11 Q3 2005 445  £433,723.8 193007091 198025 1.88116E+11 Q4 2005 428  £404,796.4 173252859.2 183184 1.6386E+11 Q1 2006 391  £431,487 168711417 152881 1.86181E+11 Q2 2006 426  £454,038.7 193420486.2 181476 2.06151E+11 Q3 2006 486  £474,899.3 230801059.8 236196 2.25529E+11 Q4 2006 474  £443,468.4 210204021.6 224676 1.96664E+11 Q1 2007 426  £494,854.8 210808144.8 181476 2.44881E+11 Q2 2007 447  £529,156.8 236533089.6 199809 2.80007E+11 Q3 2007 490  £575,658.7 282072763 240100 3.31383E+11 Q4 2007 431  £536,261.6 231128749.6 185761 2.87577E+11 SUM 18,202  £15,218,243 5,982,454,675 7,053,270 5.45022E+12 Regression Line b = 1,401.870047 a = -214,554.0571 y = -214,554 + 1,401.87x Correlation Coefficient n = 48, à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœXY = 5,982,454,675 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœX = 18,202 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœY = 15,218,243 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœX ² = 7,053,270 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœY ² = 5,450,220,000,000 Therefore; r = 0.6886964582 Coefficient of Determination r ² = 0.4743028115 4.4 Regression Number of Transactions in the UK and Outer London House Prices Year Ended Number of Transactions UK (X) Median Outer London House Prices (Y) YX X ² Y ² Q1 1996 261  £59,562.61 15545841.21 68121 3547704510 Q2 1996 284  £57,936.38 16453931.92 80656 3356624128 Q3 1996 338  £61,673.3 20845575.4 114244 3803595933 Q4 1996 360  £61,919.44 22290998.4 129600 3834017050 Q1 1997 324  £61,595.91 19957074.84 104976 3794056129 Q2 1997 351  £65,902.75 23131865.25 123201 4343172458 Q3 1997 387  £69,763.31 26998400.97 149769 4866919422 Q4 1997 377  £69,279.5 26118371.5 142129 4799649120 Q1 1998 317  £72,235.88 22898773.96 100489 5218022359 Q2 1998 317  £77,777.06 24655328.02 100489 6049271062 Q3 1998 377  £77,881.31 29361253.87 142129 6065498447 Q4 1998 335  £79,012.63 26469231.05 112225 6242995700 Q1 1999 316  £78,680.44 24863019.04 99856 6190611639 Q2 1999 342  £84,836.31 29014018.02 116964 7197199494 Q3 1999 414  £92,744.56 38396247.84 171396 8601553410 Q4 1999 397  £94,032.88 37331053.36 157609 8842182521 Q1 2000 367  £97,181.25 35665518.75 134689 9444195352 Q2 2000 348  £105,213.9 36614437.2 121104 11069964753 Q3 2000 379  £112,045.4 42465206.6 143641 12554171661 Q4 2000 339  £108,261.8 36700750.2 114921 11720617339 Q1 2001 327  £113,836.4 37224502.8 106929 12958725965 Q2 2001 347  £118,500.9 41119812.3 120409 14042463301 Q3 2001 396  £128,146.5 50746014 156816 16421525462 Q4 2001 387  £133,228.9 51559584.3 149769 17749939795 Q1 2002 342  £137,473.8 47016039.6 116964 18899045686 Q2 2002 395  £147,839.4 58396563 156025 21856488192 Q3 2002 457  £164,242.9 75059005.3 208849 26975730200 Q4 2002 392  £168,480.3 66044277.6 153664 28385611488 Q1 2003 340  £172,395.1 58614334 115600 29720070504 Q2 2003 306  £175,015 53554590 93636 30630250225 Q3 2003 358  £180,672 64680576 128164 32642371584 Q4 2003 340  £187,122.3 63621582 115600 35014755157 Q1 2004 447  £187,760.9 83929122.3 199809 35254155569 Q2 2004 452  £192,654.3 87079743.6 204304 37115679308 Q3 2004 494  £200,815 99202610 244036 40326664225 Q4 2004 398  £201,122 80046556 158404 40450058884 Q1 2005 300  £198,732 59619600 90000 39494407824 Q2 2005 350  £204,705 71646750 122500 41904137025 Q3 2005 445  £209,004.1 93006824.5 198025 43682713817 Q4 2005 428  £206,935.8 88568522.4 183184 42822425322 Q1 2006 391  £208,352 81465632 152881 43410555904 Q2 2006 426  £214,585.2 91413295.2 181476 46046808059 Q3 2006 486  £224,355.9 109036967.4 236196 50335569865 Q4 2006 474  £228,694.2 108401050.8 224676 52301037114 Q1 2007 426  £234,267.3 99797869.8 181476 54881167849 Q2 2007 447  £242,460.5 108379843.5 199809 58787094060 Q3 2007 490  £254,708.1 124806969 240100 64876216206 Q4 2007 431  £253,671.7 109332502.7 185761 64349331381 SUM 18,202  £6,877,314 2,719,147,638 7,053,270 1.17288E+12 Regression Line b = 736.8998122 a = -136,161.1746 y = -136,161.2 + 736.9 x Correlation Coefficient n = 48, à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœXY = 2,719,147,638 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœX = 18,202 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœY = 6,877,314 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœX ² = 7,053,270 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœY ² = 1,172,880,000,000 Therefore; r = 0.6610921139 Coefficient of Determination r ² = 0.4370427831 4.4 Regression Number of Transactions in the UK and Outer London House Prices Year Ended Median Inner London House Prices Median Outer London House Prices (Y) YX X ² Y ² Q1 1996  £148,896.8  £59,562.61 8868682029 22170257050 3547704510 Q2 1996  £142,925.9  £57,936.38 8280609254 20427812891 3356624128 Q3 1996  £149,826.8  £61,673.3 9240313184 22448069998 3803595933 Q4 1996  £147,718.2  £61,919.44 9146628222 21820666611 3834017050 Q1 1997  £149,578.9  £61,595.91 9213448462 22373847325 3794056129 Q2 1997  £169,794.3  £65,902.75 11189911304 28830104312 4343172458 Q3 1997  £185,726.6  £69,763.31 12956902371 34494369948 4866919422 Q4 1997  £182,093.8  £69,279.5 12615367417 33158151998 4799649120 Q1 1998  £191,055.1  £72,235.88 13801033277 36502051236 5218022359 Q2 1998  £200,912.9  £77,777.06 15626414678 40365993386 6049271062 Q3 1998  £204,534.8  £77,881.31 15929438165 41834484411 6065498447 Q4 1998  £186,289.4  £79,012.63 14719215435 34703740552 6242995700 Q1 1999  £204,493.7  £78,680.44 16089654293 41817673340 6190611639 Q2 1999  £220,366.6  £84,836.31 18695089191 48561438396 7197199494 Q3 1999  £245,895.6  £92,744.56 22805479228 60464646099 8601553410 Q4 1999  £257,173.3  £94,032.88 24182746058 66138106233 8842182521 Q1 2000  £270,717.4  £97,181.25 26308655329 73287910663 9444195352 Q2 2000  £280,789.9  £105,213.9 29543000460 78842967942 11069964753 Q3 2000  £283,595  £112,045.4 31775515213 80426124025 12554171661 Q4 2000  £293,616.9  £108,261.8 31787494104 86210883966 11720617339 Q1 2001  £295,314.7  £113,836.4 33617562315 87210772036 12958725965 Q2 2001  £297,391.6  £118,500.9 35241172252 88441763751 14042463301 Q3 2001  £321,468.8  £128,146.5 41195101579 1.03342E+11 16421525462 Q4 2001  £297,663.8  £133,228.9 39657420644 88603737830 17749939795 Q1 2002  £312,468.9  £137,473.8 42956287065 97636813467 18899045686 Q2 2002  £352,693.6  £147,839.4 52142010208 1.24393E+11 21856488192 Q3 2002  £352,302.1  £164,242.9 57863118580 1.24117E+11 26975730200 Q4 2002  £349,899.5  £168,480.3 58951172730 1.2243E+11 28385611488 Q1 2003  £332,701.3  £172,395.1 57356073884 1.1069E+11 29720070504 Q2 2003  £351,811.4  £175,015 61572272171 1.23771E+11 30630250225 Q3 2003  £356,089.1  £180,672 64335329875 1.26799E+11 32642371584 Q4 2003  £362,113.7  £187,122.3 67759548406 1.31126E+11 35014755157 Q1 2004  £364,736.2  £187,760.9 68483197175 1.33032E+11 35254155569 Q2 2004  £395,012.6  £192,654.3 76100875944 1.56035E+11 37115679308 Q3 2004  £403,472  £200,815 81023229680 1.6279E+11 40326664225 Q4 2004  £363,630  £201,122 73133992860 1.32227E+11 40450058884 Q1 2005  £399,511  £198,732 79395620052 1.59609E+11 39494407824 Q2 2005  £415,615  £204,705 85078468575 1.72736E+11 41904137025 Q3 2005  £433,723.8  £209,004.1 90650052468 1.88116E+11 43682713817 Q4 2005  £404,796.4  £206,935.8 83766866871 1.6386E+11 42822425322 Q1 2006  £431,487  £208,352 89901179424 1.86181E+11 43410555904 Q2 2006  £454,038.7  £214,585.2 97429985247 2.06151E+11 46046808059 Q3 2006  £474,899.3  £224,355.9 1.06546E+11 2.25529E+11 50335569865 Q4 2006  £443,468.4  £228,694.2 1.01419E+11 1.96664E+11 52301037114 Q1 2007  £494,854.8  £234,267.3 1.15928E+11 2.44881E+11 54881167849 Q2 2007  £529,156.8  £242,460.5 1.283E+11 2.80007E+11 58787094060 Q3 2007  £575,658.7  £254,708.1 1.46625E+11 3.31383E+11 64876216206 Q4 2007  £536,261.6  £253,671.7 1.36034E+11 2.87577E+11 64349331381 Q1 2008  £584,706.4  £249,366.9 1.45806E+11 3.41882E+11 62183850816 Q2 2008  £570,786.1  £248,421.1 1.41795E+11 3.25797E+11 61713042925 Q3 2008  £584,098.4  £232,884.6 1.36028E+11 3.41171E+11 54235236917 Q4 2008  £494,282.3  £215,512.9 1.06524E+11 2.44315E+11 46445810066 Q1 2009  £564,941.1  £210,796.7 1.19088E+11 3.19158E+11 44435248731 Q2 2009  £482,495.8  £214,048.4 1.03277E+11 2.32802E+11 45816717543 Q3 2009  £570,295.6  £225,076.2 1.2836E+11 3.25237E+11 50659295806 SUM  £19,069,848  £8,473,421 3.39612E+12 7.58058E+12 1.53837E+12 Regression Line b = 736.8998122 a = -136,161.1746 y = -136,161.2 + 736.9 x Correlation Coefficient n = 55, à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœXY = 3,396,120,000,000 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœX = 19,069,848 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœY = 8,473,421 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœX ² = 7,580,580,000,000 à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬ËœY ² = 1,538,370,000,000 Therefore; r = 0.4730322188 Coefficient of Determination r ² = 0.22375948 Chapter 5: Conclusion Recommendations

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Marketing Plan - Stellar Cigarettes - 3582 Words

ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL, KOLKATA MARKETING PLAN FOR STELLAR THE ONLY INDIAN LOW NICOTINE CIGARETTE SUBMITTED TO PROF. RAHUL GUPTA GROUP MEMBERS: SHIV CHARAN SASTRY (08BS0002843) SAURABH MURGAI (08BS0003012) SAMEER SRIVASTAVA (08BS0002908) SHREYANS JAIN (08BS0003182) SHUBHREET PARMAR (08BS0003209) SHANTANU SHEKHAR (08BS0003078) TANVI SONI (08BS000 KUSH MEHENSARIA (08BS0004128) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Indian Cigarettes Tobacco Products market is a huge opportunity for any company that wishes to gain a foothold in this industry. The industry is dominated by a few major players, namely ITC Ltd., Godfrey Phillips India Ltd., Vazir Sultan Tobacco Ltd., and Golden Tobacco Company Ltd. Together these companies hold†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ VAZIR SULTAN TOBACCO COMPANY (VST): Vazir Sultan Tobacco Company is the next biggest player with 8% market share. It is in collaboration with the BAT Group UK. The company is headquartered in Hyderabad, India. †¢ GOLDEN TOBACCO COMPANY (GTC): GTC is one of the minor players in the industry, with a market share of approximately 4-5%. It is headquartered in Mumbai, India. CATEGORY ANALYSIS †¢ Category Size and Growth: There are approximately 120 million smokers in India , about 37 percent of all men and 5 percent of all women between the ages of 21 and 69. The market is expected to grow at a rate of about 15% per annum , which makes it very lucrative. †¢ Stage in Product Life Cycle: Cigarettes lie at the maturity stage of the product life cycle, as the market is not growing at an exponential rate, or declining. But the fact that Low Nicotine Cigarettes are relatively new to the market and have certainly not reached the maximum sales potential, these will lie in the Growth stage. †¢ Sales Cyclicity and Seasonality: Cigarettes generally do not show any type of seasonality or cyclicity in sales. Even though some experts argue that sales increase in winter seasons, no such trend is observed in India. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS 1) Strong Distribution Channel Godfrey Philips has a strong Distribution Channel comprising of more than 500 distributors and 800,000 retail outlets. The Distribution Channel coversShow MoreRelatedExample of Product Strategy13854 Words   |  56 Pagesencompassing a wide range of businesses - Cigarettes Tobacco, Hotels, Information Technology, Packaging, Paperboards Specialty Papers, Agri-Exports, Foods, Lifestyle Retailing and Greeting Gifting Stationery - the full stops in the Companys name were removed effective September 18, 2001. The Company now stands rechristened ITC Limited. 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VICE PRESIDENT PUBLISHER EXECUTIVE EDITOR ASSISTANT EDITOR PRODUCTION MANAGER PRODUCTION ASSISTANT EXECUTIVE MARKETING MANAGER ASSISTANT MARKETING MANAGER MARKETING ASSISTANT DESIGN DIRECTOR SENIOR DESIGNER SENIOR MEDIA EDITOR George Hoffman Lise Johnson Carissa Doshi Dorothy Sinclair Matt Winslow Amy Scholz Carly DeCandia Read More65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 147256 Words   |  190 Pageslead a team of skeptical engineers and accountants to develop a marketing department, and to actively participate in business development, I did not recognize how valuable the more could be. I began the project at a disadvantage; the owners had already spent three months and $20,000 with an advertising agency, but devel... oped no usable materiaL I wanted to inspire my teams confidence as I led them into the unknown world of marketing, so I took several strong, decisive actions. I fired the agencyRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesPaulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Editor in Chief: Eric Svendsen Acquisitions Editor: Kim Norbuta Editorial Project Manager: Claudia Fernandes Director of Marketing: Patrice Lumumba Jones Marketing Manager: Nikki Ayana Jones Senior Marketing Assistant: Ian Gold Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Senior Production Project Manager: Kelly Warsak Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Operations Specialist: Ilene Kahn Senior Art Director: Janet SlowikRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesSingapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services: Ashley Santora Acquisitions Editor: Brian Mickelson Editorial Project Manager: Sarah Holle Editorial Assistant: Ashlee Bradbury VP Director of Marketing: Patrice Lumumba Jones Senior Marketing Manager: Nikki Ayana Jones Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Production Project Manager: Becca Groves Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Operations Specialist: Cathleen Petersen Senior Art Director: Janet Slowik Art

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Abortion, Parenting, Animal Rights, Capitalism Notes Free Essays

Abortion: (See Abortion Murder, The Case Against Abortion in Highlights) Women are blessed with a miraculous reproductive system. They should be encouraged to honor and respect it. It should be used responsibly. We will write a custom essay sample on Abortion, Parenting, Animal Rights, Capitalism: Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now We should not encourage women to abuse it because it is their body and thereby their right. Yes, there are circumstances where they have to make very tough decisions and choices because of rape or incest. But instead of encouraging abortion right from the start, they should be counseled on other solutions first and make abortion the very last absolutely tragic answer to their problem. Tell women they have a right to abort, it’s their body, and it’s their choice. No. Many will abuse that right and start using it as a method of birth control. I’d like to think this is not true but many will abuse that right and start using it as a method of birth control. I don’t ever want abortion to become fashionable or just another procedure. It should always be regarded as the last possible option and only in cases of rape, incest or when the mother’s life is in danger. American Atrocities (Domestic) : Also see International American Atrocities Rockefeller has Coal miners union organizers murdered. The Ludlow Massacre in 1914 by the National Guard. 11 Children, 2 Women. In 1847 Federal troops killed 30 workers, 100 woulded in the battle of the Viaduct in Chicago. In 1894 Federal troops killed 34 Pullman railroad union members. 1897, 19 coal miners killed, 36 wounded in PA. Animal Rights: The Illogic of Animal Rights by J. Neil Schulman The so-called â€Å"animal rights† movement is relying upon a logical fallacy which is based on mutually exclusive premises. Animal rights† premise #1: Human beings are no different from other animals, with no divine or elevated nature which makes us distinct; â€Å"Animal rights† premise #2: Human beings are ethically bound not to use other animals for their own selfish purposes. If human beings are no different from other animals, then like all other animals it is our nature to kill any other ani mal which serves the purposes of our survival and well-being, for that is the way of all nature. Therefore, aside from economic concerns such as making sure we don’t kill so quickly that we destroy a species and deprive our descendants of prey, human animals can kill members of other animal species for their usefulness to us. It is only if we are not just another animal — if our nature is distinctly superior to other animals — that we become subject to ethics at all — and then those ethics must take into account our nature as masters of the lower animals. We may seek a balance of nature; but â€Å"balance† is a concept that only a species as intelligent as humankind could even contemplate. We may choose to temper the purposes to which we put lower animals with empathy and wisdom; but by virtue of our superior nature, we decide †¦ and if those decisions include the consumption of animals for human utilitarian or recreational purposes, then the limits on the uses we put the lower beasts are ones we set according to our individual human consciences. â€Å"Animal rights† do not exist in either case. Even though I personally believe we were created by God, unlike advocates of the Judeo-Christian tradition I do not rely upon the question of whether humans have a â€Å"soul† to distinguish humans from animals. Like secular rationalists, I’m content to resolve the issue of the nature of human beings, and the nature of animals, by scientific means — observation, experiment, and the debate of paradigms. Each of these criteria is simply a proof of intelligence and self-consciousness: 1) Being observed as producing or having produced technological artifacts unique to that species; 2) Being observed as able to communicate from one generation to the next by a recorded language unique to that species; 3) Being observed as basing action on abstract reasoning; ) Being observed as engaging in inductive and deductive reasoning processes; 5) Being observed as engaging in non-utilitarian artistic activity unique to that species. I’m sure there are other criteria we could use, but these are obvious ones that come to mind immediately. None of them speculates about the unobservable functioning of a neural network; all of them are based on observable effects of intelligence and self-con sciousness. Conclusively, we are of a different nature than other animals we know. Neither cetaceans nor other higher mammals, including the higher apes, qualify as â€Å"human† under these criteria. We do not observe these significations of intelligence and self-consciousness in any other species we know, such criteria being neither necessarily anthropocentric nor even terracentric. By the â€Å"survival of the fittest† which is the law of raw nature, no animal has rights: only the tools to survive as best it can. The chicken has no right not to be eaten by the fox. The wildebeest has no ethical recourse against the lion. If we are merely animals, no other animal has any ethical standing to complain against the human animal for eating them or wearing their skins. But, if we are superior to other animals — if our nature is of a different kind than other animals — then why should we grant rights to species who can not talk, or compose symphonies, or induce mathematical equations, or build satellites which send back television pictures of other planets? Why shouldn’t we humans simply regard lower animals as things which may become our property? We may be kind to animals if it is pleasing to us to do so, but we should not grant animals an equal stature that nature has not given them. Respect for nature requires a respect for the nature of what things are †¦ nd we are better, stronger, smarter, than the animals we hunt, ranch, farm, fish, trap, butcher, skin, bone, and eat. They certainly have no ethics about us, for they are just animals. Nor are any â€Å"animal rights† activists themselves merely animals. There is no organization called Porpoises for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. It is People who make those demands of other People. Those who argue for animal rights argue that since animals are living and feel pain, that therefore nature gives them a right not to be treated cruelly. This is an argument that could only work on a being capable of empathy — and that requires an elevated consciousness. It is true that animals can feel pain, and that esthetically requires that we not be cruel in our treatment of them. But what is cruelty? Beating a horse that won’t pull a wagon? Making animals fight each other for sport? That’s no longer the issue, is it? The issue is ranching minks to skin them for fur; castrating and slaughtering steers to eat them; hunting and shooting deer, ducks, and elks; testing cosmetics on animals; doing medical experiments on animals to advance medical knowledge. Do we have a moral obligation not to use animals for human utilitarian purposes, which is another way of asking whether animals have the right not to be treated as objects to be exploited for their usefulness? The idea of a right means that which has rights may not be treated as a utilitarian object for the fulfillment of the purposes of others. Animal rights would mean animals would be immune from being used to fulfill any human purpose. PETA has it exactly correct. If animals have rights, then we may not ethically use them for our own selfish purposes, no matter how necessary we think that use or how humanely we assert we do it to them. This is, in fact, the logical conclusion of â€Å"animal rights. † If animals have rights then we need not make any distinction between an unnecessarily cruel use of animals (pick one: cock- fighting, animal testing for beauty products) or eating animals, because if animals have rights then we are not morally entitled to put them to utilitarian use, period. Let me make it clear: I am not questioning the humaneness or cruelty of any particular practice. My point is that the interests of those who assert that the lower animals have rights is not to protect animals against cruel treatment. That can be done merely by an appeal to our consciences. Those who assert that animals or even â€Å"habitats† have rights do so to destroy individual human rights to control what I term the anthroposphere: the human habitat. It is the individual human right to control our private spheres of action — our individual habitats — which they oppose. Some â€Å"animal rights† activists, basing their thinking on pantheism, equate humans with the rest of nature by saying that we are all share a divine consciousness. But equating humankind as no more divine than inanimate objects or other animals isn’t raising nature but lowering humankind. Pantheists believe that everything is sacred, including the inanimate. Yet, I don’t notice them picketing Mount St. Helen’s volcano for spewing its lava, burning trees and killing wildlife. It’s only human action to which animal rights activists object. So where do we find ethics here? If we look to nature, we see only that the strong use the weak for their own purposes — and we are obviously the master of all other animals by that standard. If we look to the center of all human ethics, the Golden Rule, we are told to treat others as we would wish to be treated. But what others? Animals can’t treat us as we wish to be treated because they don’t have the wit to entertain ethics at all. Which leaves us esthetics, which exists only in individual humans. Since lower animals don’t have rights, we humans need to make judgments on humane versus cruel treatment of lower animals not by treating animals as if they have rights but instead must rely on our esthetic values — our consciences. But, after seeing tree-spikers, people throwing paint on fur coats, and Kentucky Fried Chicken being equated with Auschwitz, it’s now apparent that the effect of trying to give animals the same ethical immunities as humans is that all esthetic distinction between cock-fighting and eating meat is lost. The effect of â€Å"all or nothing† in our uses of animals is to blunt our consciences, which makes us crueler to animals, not less cruel. Those people among us who would give lower animals human rights do not do it because they love other animals. They do it because they hate humankind. They hate the fact that their own superior nature as intellectual beings gives them superior challenges which they shrink from by attempting to deny the superiority of their human nature. â€Å"Animal rights† is just one more diabolic scheme for promoting government control over human lives by destroying our right to private property. It is the logical tactic of those who hate the individual creative ability and wish it replaced by the anti-human jackboots of collectivism. â€Å"Animal rights† activists use the tools of rationality which are uniquely available to the human species in order to deny the distinct nature of their own rational faculties. They raise up animals in an attempt to lower humankind. They may speak for themselves only, not for me. I know what I am. I know what animals are. And I will name what â€Å"animal rights† activists truly are: the Human Defamation League. And making us as oblivious to cruelty as are all other animals, if not the actual agenda of the Human Defamation League, is nonetheless the unintended consequence of their campaign. 7 Things You Didn’t Know About PETA 1) According to government documents, PETA employees have killed more than 19,200 dogs, cats, puppies, and kittens since 1998. This behavior continues despite PETA’s moralizing about the â€Å"unethical† treatment of animals by farmers, scientists, restaurant owners, circuses, hunters, fishermen, zookeepers, and countless other Americans. PETA puts to death over 90 percent of the animals it accepts from members of the public who expect the group to make a reasonable attempt to find them adoptive homes. PETA holds absolutely no open-adoption shelter hours at its Norfolk, VA headquarters, choosing instead to spend part of its $32 million nnual income on a contract with a crematory service to periodically empty hundreds of animal bodies from its large walk-in freezer. 2) PETA president and co-founder Ingrid Newkirk has described her group’s overall goal as â€Å"total animal liberation. † This means the complete abolition of meat, milk, cheese, eggs, honey, zoos, aquariums, circuses, wool, leather, fur, silk, hunting, fishing, and pet ownership. In a 2003 profile of Newkirk in The Ne w Yorker, author Michael Specter wrote that Newkirk has had at least one seeing-eye dog taken away from its blind owner. PETA is also against all medical research that requires the use of animals, including research aimed at curing AIDS and cancer. 3) PETA has given tens of thousands of dollars to convicted arsonists and other violent criminals. This includes a 2001 donation of $1,500 to the North American Earth Liberation Front (ELF), an FBI-certified â€Å"domestic terrorist† group responsible for dozens of firebombs and death threats. During the 1990s, PETA paid $70,200 to Rodney Coronado, an Animal Liberation Front (ALF) serial arsonist convicted of burning down a Michigan State University research laboratory. In his sentencing memorandum, a federal prosecutor implicated PETA president Ingrid Newkirk in that crime. PETA vegetarian campaign coordinator Bruce Friedrich has also told an animal rights convention that â€Å"blowing stuff up and smashing windows† is â€Å"a great way to bring about animal liberation,† adding, â€Å"Hallelujah to the people who are willing to do it. † 4) PETA activists regularly target children as young as six years old with anti-meat and anti-milk propaganda, even waiting outside their schools to intercept them without notifying their parents. One piece of kid-targeted PETA literature tells small children: â€Å"Your Mommy Kills Animals! † PETA brags that its messages reach over 1. 2 million minor children, including 30,000 kids between the ages of 6 and 12, all contacted by e-mail without parental supervision. One PETA vice president told the Fox News Channel’s audience: â€Å"Our campaigns are always geared towards children, and they always will be. † 5) PETA’s president has said that â€Å"even if animal research resulted in a cure for AIDS, we would be against it. And PETA has repeatedly attacked research foundations like the March of Dimes, the Pediatric AIDS Foundation, and the American Cancer Society, solely because they support animal-based research aimed at curing life-threatening diseases and birth defects. And PETA helped to start and manage a quasi-medical front group, the misnamed Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, to attack medical research head-on. 6) PETA has compare d Jewish victims of the Nazi Holocaust to farm animals and Jesus Christ to pigs. PETA’s religious campaigns include a website that claims—despite ample evidence to the contrary—that Jesus Christ was a vegetarian. PETA holds protests at houses of worship, even suing one church that tried to protect its members from Sunday-morning harassment. Its billboards taunt Christians with the message that hogs â€Å"died for their sins. † PETA insists, contrary to centuries of rabbinical teaching, that the Jewish ritual of kosher slaughter shouldn’t be allowed. And its infamous â€Å"Holocaust on Your Plate† campaign crassly compared the Jewish victims of Nazi genocide to farm animals. 7) PETA frequently looks the other way when its celebrity spokespersons don’t practice what it preaches. As gossip bloggers and Hollywood journalists have noted, Pamela Anderson’s Dodge Viper (auctioned to benefit PETA) had a â€Å"luxurious leather interior†; Jenna Jameson was photographed fishing, slurping oysters, and wearing a leather jacket just weeks after launching an anti-leather campaign for PETA; Morrissey got an official â€Å"okay† from PETA after eating at a steakhouse; Dita von Teese has written about her love of furs and foie gras; Steve-O built a career out of abusing small animals on film; the officially â€Å"anti-fur† Eva Mendes often wears fur anyway; and Charlize Theron’s celebrated October 2007 Vogue cover shoot featured several suede garments. In 2008, â€Å"Baby Phat† designer Kimora Lee Simmons became a PETA spokesmodel despite working with fur and leather, after making a $20,000 donation to the animal rights group. It’s always been hard for me to understand why relatively intelligent people hold meaningless discu ssions based on the writings of a primitive and superstitious desert culture and believe it all to be true because their parents told them so. Talking snake, sun and stars created after the earth, the sun placed in the sky after fruit trees already here, woman created after man, man swallowed by a fish, regurgitated and lives to talk about it, no rainbows till after Noah’s flood, all the world’s creatures on one big boat, sticks turned into serpents, woman turned to pillar of salt, little children killed on God’s orders because they had the wrong parents. Religion is merely a combination of beliefs and cult practices used throughout history as a form of oppression by the ruling class. Religion is the exploitation of human ignorance and credulity. It would literally take a â€Å"genius† not to see that. Bible, The: The Big Bang? : Life on earth could never exist were it not for a series of very fortunate â€Å"coincidences† such as: location, orbit, tilt, rotational speed and unusually large moon. Also a magnetic field and atmosphere that shields the planet. Not to mention cycles that, repl enish and cleanse the air and water. Is it blind chance or intelligent design? Location: Ideal perfect location in the galaxy, too close to center would allow dangerous and lethal radiation, too far from center would prohibit the needed concentrations of chemical elements needed to support life. Accident? Orbit: About 93 million miles from the sun, is just about the perfect zone that is habitable because life neither freezes nor fries. Earth’s path is circular, keeping it the same distance from the sun year-round. Happenstance? Extraordinary Large Moon: The moon’s diameter is a little over a quarter of the earth’s diameter, unusually large compared to all the other moons. It causes ocean tides that play a vital role in earth’s ecology. It contributes to the earth’s perfect spin axis, which without, the earth would wobble out of control. Blind chance? Perfect Tilt and Spin: Earth’s tilt of about 23. 4 degrees causes the annual cycle of seasons, moderates temperatures and allows for a wide range of climate zones. The length of day and night, a result of the earth’s spin, maintains a habitable temperature for life. If the speed of rotation were slower, days would be longer and the â€Å"sunny side† would bake while the other side would freeze. If the speed were faster, days would be shorter; earth’s rapid spin would cause relentless gale-force winds and other disastrous effects. Coincidence? Protective Shields: Earth seems to fly through a shooting gallery of lethal radiation and meteoroids with relative impunity. Our powerful magnetic field stretches far into space, which protects us from the solar winds, flares, and explosions, which blast billions of tons of matter into space. Our blanket of gases (stratosphere) keeps us breathing, by absorbing 99 percent of incoming UV radiation through our ozone layer protecting all life on the earth. Amazingly this amount of atmospheric ozone gases is not fixed, it changes in intensity as the UV radiation rises. And yet it lets in the heat and light so essential to life. Dumb luck? Natural Cycles of Water and Air: Fresh water is recycled and redistributed around the planet in three stages: evaporation, condensation and precipitation. An amazing process called photosynthesis creates life-giving oxygen. Plants take in our exhausted carbon dioxide, energize it with sunlight and produce carbohydrates and oxygen. We complete the cycle when we breathe. All this production of vegetation and breathable air happens cleanly, efficiently and quietly. The same holds with organic matter, or the nitrogen cycle. 78 percent of our atmosphere is nitrogen, lightning converts nitrogen into compounds, which are absorbed by plants. Animals eat those plants, when plants and animals die, the nitrogen compounds are broken down by bacteria and their decay releases nitrogen back into the soil and atmosphere, completing the cycle. Perfect recycling, or just a matter of random incidences? The greatest accomplishment of the 20th Century is the discovery of human ignorance. We can no longer make up stories to explain the world. We no longer accept the Church providing both the questions and the answers. All theories and solutions must be confirmed and reconfirmed through experiment. 4. Capitalism: The economic system based on the fiction of the productivity of capital, justifiable once, is henceforth illegitimate. Its inefficacy and malfeasance have been exposed; it is the cause of all existing misery, the present mainstay of that old fiction of representative government which is the last form of tyranny among men. Proudhon, Interest and Principal -1849 The capitalist system flourishes through the use of economic disparity, social inadequacies, manipulative financial practices, planned obsolescence, discriminative procedures, and predatory exploitation of the 99%. Our banknotes are forgeries. We live in a counterfeit economy. The dollar will soon become useless and we are all living on borrowed time. The corporately funded politicians who by controlling the press, the schools, and the churches, impose capitalism upon the masses under the attractive guise of loyal patriotism. How Capitalism Works by Bruce Morgan Under capitalism, only money has value. Other items have value only to the extent they can be converted to money or can generate money. This includes things such as labor, commodities and property. What cannot be converted to money has no value and is often eliminated. This can include people. Profits are more valuable than the ecosystem or worker safety. The purpose of capitalism is to move as much money to the top 0. 1% of society, from those who are not (and will never be) at or near the top. Wealthy individuals, with few exceptions, do not come by their fortune by their own productive labor. Instead, they appropriate as much as possible from other people’s productive labor. Capitalists themselves believe that they are entitled to this wealth; even if they did little to earn it. Illegality for the elites is inconsequential. Even if something is technically illegal, if it is not prosecuted it becomes de facto legal. Governments work either for their people or for the rich, they cannot work for both. In virtually all Western societies, the ultra rich (individuals and corporations) have captured their governments, to a greater or lesser degree. For the U. S. federal government, this capture is virtually complete. Once the privileged class has control of the government, they can have whatever laws passed that they want, including those that make their crimes retroactively legal. There, in 241 words is the essence of capitalism as actually practiced. Once these points are understood, the machinations behind current events in the areas of economics, politics and foreign affairs become evident. This article was deliberately presented in black and white. Those who want gray can get it from the lame stream media. â€Å"The real truth of the matter is, as you and I know, that a financial element in the large centers has owned the government ever since the days of Andrew Jackson. † –Franklin D Roosevelt Money is a drug if the right dosage can be found, creating just enough, not too much — it’s like magic. As long as people keep buying things they don’t need. As long as those in the business don’t hoard too much. As long as the real resources don’t dry up, the illusion of prosperity can be maintained with more and more IOUs. Like all stimulants, money steals from tomorrow. The quest for fame and fortune, when will it end? This tyranny of early rising and retiring late. Riding on mules they long for noble steeds. Already prime ministers, they seek to be kings. For food and raiment, they suffer stress and strain. Never fearful of Yama’s call to reckoning. Searching for wealth and power to give to grandsons. No one is willing ever to turn back. (The Journey to the West) 1582 5. Children, Parenting: It couldn’t have been because half our children are being raised in broken homes. It couldn’t have been because our children get to spend an average of 30 seconds in meaningful conversation with their parents each day. After all, we give our children quality time. It couldn’t have been because we treat our children as pets and our pets as children. It couldn’t have been because we place our children in day care centers where they learn their socialization skills among their peers under the law of the jungle while employees who have no vested interest in the children look on and make sure that no blood is spilled. It couldn’t have been because we allow our children to watch, on the average, seven hours of television a day filled with the glorification of sex and violence that isn’t fit for adult consumption. It couldn’t have been because we allow our children to enter into virtual worlds in which, to win the game, one must kill as many opponents as possible in the most sadistic way possible. It couldn’t have been because we have sterilized and contracepted our families down to sizes so small that the children we do have are so spoiled with material things that they come to equate the receiving of the material with love. It couldn’t have been because our children, who historically have been seen as a blessing from God, are now being viewed as either a mistake created when contraception fails or inconveniences that parents try to raise in their spare time. It couldn’t have been because we give two-year prison sentences to teenagers who kill their newborns. It couldn’t have been because our school systems teach the children that they are nothing but glorified apes who have evolved out of some primordial soup of mud by teaching evolution as fact and by handing out condoms as if they were candy. It couldn’t have been because we teach our children that there are no laws of morality that transcend us, that everything is relative and that actions don’t have consequences. What the heck, the president gets away with it. Colonization: Also See Third World Nations European explorers were responsible for the extermination of 70 million souls in the New World between the years 1533-1588. They were murdered for their women, gold, silver, natural resources and land. Million natives were murdered within 3 years according to Leah Trabich. Within 15 years, the Arawak tribe of 250,000 was completely wiped out. The population of the United States prior to European contact was greater than 12 million. Four centuries later, the count w as reduced by 95% to 237 thousand. From 1494 to 1508, over three million people had perished from war, slavery, and the mines. These atrocities are seen throughout Africa, New Zealand, New Guinea, East Timor Cultures Right and Wrong Beauty is in the MIND of the beholder. Some may look upon murder as senseless vicious evil; others may see it as necessary. You may look at grass and see green; someone else will see blue. What may be music to your ears may very well be appalling noise to others. Inuits may be very comfortable in zero degree weather while you are freezing. Vice, virtue, sounds, colors, taste, beauty, heat, cold are not qualities in objects but perceptions in the mind. –Hume. Some cultures kill the weak and elderly to insure the longevity of the village. It’s a matter of survival. Amazonian women are not only happy but also proud to share themselves among the entire village, for they realize this creates life and perpetuates their species and yet would kill their third child to save the rest of their family from marauding slave traders. What brings joy to some may bring sorrow and woe to others. Hawaii’s ruling family not only accepted royal incest but also encouraged it as an exclusive royal privilege. Sibling or parent child incest was common in our 50th state before they were â€Å"annexed† to the US. Different societies and cultures have different systems of laws. The rules of one’s own society are not sacrosanct and cannot be used to judge, condemn or decide others’ moral standards. Fixed ideas and values should be eliminated; primitive, civilized, child, adult, perverted and normal are all shattered and put on a sliding scale when addressing other cultures and societies. When there are so many differences in the moral codes of different societies, how can we regard our own, or any other, as the normal or standard way of thinking? Depletion of Natural Resources: (See Problematic World Economy) Everyone is concerned about Oil but water is the real problem. Oil can be replace but there’s no substitute for fresh water. We are running out of clean water. Nations fighting over natural resources. Ever expanding and sophistication of technology. Increased poverty caused by huge migration from rural areas to large cities throughout the world. Traditional lifestyle of farming and ranching has vanished and more people are dependent on government support. Feeding the growing population on the planet has become a huge problem for governments. Medical technology has increased life expectancy allows people to live longer than ever before. Greed and corruption among the world’s nations is becoming more and more the norm. Fewer people control the economic wealth and military might than ever before since earth’s creation.. We’re all on borrowed time. Evolution and Discrimination (Racism): Charles Darwin’s book’s full title is On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. As much as many seek to disavow, generally speaking, man is NOT a gentle creature that just wants to be loved and will, at most, defend himself when attacked. Man has an instinctual, powerful measure of aggression and his neighbor is for him someone on whom he is tempted to satisfy his aggressiveness. He will exploit the capacity to have someone work without pay, use sexually without consent, cause others pain, torture or death. It seems that mankind abandons their bad habits only when catastrophe is close at hand. The intellect alone is not enough. Men must be shaken, almost shattered before changing. – Sigmund Freud Family: I’ve received a cease and desist order prohibiting me from discussing: sexual preferences, politics, religion, abortion, nuclear power, peak oil, climate change, the environment, food shortages, economic instability, international terrorism and the military industrial complex. Failure to comply will immediately result in the termination of all intimate marital favors and services. We’ve known each other since childhood. Our souls are mingled and connected in so universal a blending that they erase the seam that joins us together. She alone has the privilege of my true portrait and understands me for who I think I am. If I were to lose her, I would merely drag wearily on. Famine, Food and Population Control: Wild, man-made viruses released and vaccines created for profit and population control by the military, medical, petrol-chemical pharmaceutical cartel. Life is tough and for many it is short, brutal, filled with want and pain. It seems that the well being of some, is sustained on the troubles and elimination of others. Last year, 17. 2 million households in the United States were food insecure, the highest level on record, as the Great Recession continued to wreak havoc on families across the country. Of those 17. 2 million households, 3. 9 million included children. On Thanksgiving Day, here’s a look at hunger in America, as millions of Americans struggle to get enough to eat in the wake of the economic crisis: Memo to Bill, Oprah, Brad and Angelina: Not enough poor and hungry people in the US? You don’t have to go to Haiti and Africa to feed and shelter the poor. They’re right here in Florida, Texas, California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Georgia. Why don’t you start giving back to the country where you made your millions? Or are you all full of shit? Collectively, among every human, the cancer upon our Earth is the domination of our false-ego and our divorce from nature. Collectively, among every human, vanity leads to segregation and competition. Competition leads to fear and greed. Greed leads to deceit and immorality. And immorality is the breeding ground for illness, waging war on our Earth. Every act of hatred and destructiveness in our world begins with self-hate, and self-destructiveness. And that all begins with a breakdown on communication. Just remember that the false-ego has only one desire – to become greater and more powerful than the true self. How to cite Abortion, Parenting, Animal Rights, Capitalism: Notes, Papers